I need writing feedback for the content below. The materials in this section provide a brief review of the literature on training methods that will

I need writing feedback for the content below. The materials in this section provide a brief review of the literature on training methods that will be used to train our direct care staff. It is important to understand the purpose of each training method and how the strengths of one training method will ideally offset the limitations of another. You will find an annotated bibliography on research involving these training methods in Appendix F. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is an evidence-based protocol created by behavior analysts to train staff members based on their prior training experiences. Parsons et al. (2012) described the target steps to include describing the target skill, providing a written description of the skill, demonstrating the target skill, requiring the trainee to practice the target skill, providing feedback during practice, and repeating the last two steps until mastery is achieved. Following these instruction techniques when training staff members is essential for learning the background and how to implement a noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) of tangible intervention with clients. First, Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) is a computer-aided instruction that involves constructing informational sections based on a target intervention and incorporating knowledge checks with questions pulled from the instruction. PSI provides an efficient and cost-effective method to teach staff members various skills for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Busch et al. 2017; Zaragoza-Scherman et al. 2015) before progressing in the steps of BST. Zaragoza-Scherman et al. (2015) found PSI to be an effective way of teaching staff members how to implement Discrete-Trial Training (DTT) programming, which could be applied and effective for this training method of individualized student treatment plans due to the similarities among ABA techniques. Second, modeling then provides a visual demonstration of how a skill is expected to be performed. Modeling takes the form of both in-vivo/person or in-vitro/virtual. For the implementation of BST for NCR of tangibles, in-vitro modeling will be utilized when training staff. Hogan et al. (2014) found that modeling a behavior intervention plan (BIP) in a nonpublic school was effective in reaching procedural integrity criteria across staff members. These findings within BST are beneficial to support modeling when teaching BIPs, including those of NCR of tangibles. Third, role-play involves two separate individuals, the client and implementer, engaging in a mock intervention. Role-play will allow the staff member to become comfortable implementing NCR of tangibles with other adults before being exposed to real-life scenarios with a client. Pritchard et al. (2017) found treatment integrity among staff members to be much higher after role-playing was conducted. This will allow the staff opportunities to expose themselves to possible situations where NCR of tangible will be implemented and learn how to respond before running the intervention in the field. Lastly, coaching and feedback is an important component of BST because it allows the trainers to objectively evaluate the behaviors and implementation of staff members. Due to the trainer’s advanced experience in the implementation of NCR of tangibles, he or she is then qualified to make suggestions and critique the performance of trainees. Duchaine et al. (2011) found positive correlations between coaching and feedback in the use of immediate behavior-specific praise. Similar to praise, acknowledging these evaluations allows staff members to be aware of their errors or weaknesses. Including all of these steps is critical in the performance of BST for training staff members on implementing NCR of tangibles. Possible limitations of Behavior Skills Training (BST) include a decrease in efficacy due to the total time necessary for the implementation and the lack of research of each step-in isolation (Parsons et al. 2012 and Sarokoff & Sturmey 2004). Fortunately, this training manual has allocated time for NCR of tangibles training using all of the methods required in Behavior Skills Training. This allocation increases the efficacy of this training strategy in this clinic setting. Additionally, since a large group of staff members will be engaging in this training process, every step of Behavior Skills Training will be implemented for NCR of tangibles. Whether each step of Behavior Skills Training is functional when isolated is unrelated to this particular training process. Many other references were isolated on the efficacy of each step, but there has not been any found research focusing on a hierarchy of steps within BST. To effectively train our new direct care staff using BST, multiple training methods will be employed. Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) will be used first to increase knowledge acquisition and will be completed individually by DCS. Modeling and role-play are designed to support skill acquisition and will be completed in a group format. Coaching and performance feedback will be provided in the natural environment (i.e., with clients) and will be completed individually. To most effectively train our staff, it is important to be familiar with recent research that supports. Not only BST, but its individual component parts. Below you will find literature on the training methods you will use to train our direct care staff. A team of advanced graduate students prepared all of these materials and our organization has reviewed and approved their use for all new direct care staff. You will find the training materials in Appendices B. However, the purpose of this section is not to focus on those training materials, but rather, to ensure you understand the research supporting the use of these methods for training. Behavior analysts are responsible for using evidence-based training methods.

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