2 Name the two main layers of the skin. 4 Make a list of the structures you would expect to find in the dermis. 5

2 Name the two main layers of the skin. 4 Make a list of the structures you would expect to find in the dermis. 5 What are likely to be (a) the coldest, (b) the warmest parts of the body? 6 What, approximately, is the normal range of body temperature? 7 List the ways in which the body might lose heat. 8 What (a) internal, (b) external events contribute to gain of heat in the body? 9 (a) What is ‘vaso-constriction’? (b) What are the effects of vaso-constriction in the skin? 10 Why should shivering contribute to heat gain in the body? 11 (a) What is meant by ‘vaso-dilation’? (b) What are the effects of vaso-dilation in the skin? 12 Sweating, by itself, will not cool the body. What has to happen to sweat if it is to have a cooling effect? 13 What do you understand by the term hypothermia? 14 Name two ways in which the chances of hypothermia can be reduced during outdoor 1. Explain why several auxiliary buds sprout when a terminal bud in a young tree is removed. 2. Account for loss in dry weight of cotyledons in a germinating bean seed. 3. What is the effect of gibberellins on shoots of plants? 4. A student set up an experiment as shown in the diagram below The set up was left at room temperature for a week (a) What was the aim of the experiment? (b) What would be the expected results at the end of the experiment? 5. State two advantages of metamorphosis to the life of insects 6. During germination and early growth, the dry weight of endosperm decreases while that of the embryo increases. Explain 7. In an experiment, a group of student set up four glass jars as shown in the diagram below jar A, B and C were maintained at 250C for 7 days. While Jar D was maintained at 00 c for the same period of time. (a) What was this set up supposed to investigate? (b) Why was pyrogallic acid included in glass jar A? (c) Explain why glass jar C and D were included in the experiment (d) What result would you expect in glass jar A and B at the end of the experiment? (e) State two artificial ways of breaking seed dormancy 8. Removal of the apical bud from the shrub is a practice that results in the development of the lateral buds which later from the branches. (a) Give reasons for the development of the lateral braches after the removal of the apical bud (b) Suggest one application of this practice (c) What is the importance of this practice? 9. In an experiment some germination seeds were placed in large airtight flask and left for four days (a) Suggest the expected changes in the composition of gases in the flask on the fifth day (b) Give four reasons for your answer in (a) above (c) Name two factors that cause dormancy in seeds 10. (a) Distinguish between epigeal and hypogeal germination ( 1 mark) (b) Why is oxygen necessary in the germination of seeds? ( 2 marks) 11. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of hormones on growth of lateral buds of three pea plants The shoots were treated as follows: Shoot A- Apical bud was removed Shoot B – Apical bud was removed and gibberellic acid placed on the cut shoot Shoot C- Apical bud was left intact. The length of the branches developing from the lateral buds were determines at regular intervals The results obtained are as shown in the table below Time (days) Length of branches in mm Shoot A Shoot B Shoot C 0 3 3 3 2 10 12 3 4 28 48 8 6 50 90 14 8 80 120 20 10 118 152 26 (a) Using the same axes, draw graphs to show the length of branches against time ( 8 marks) (b) (i) What was the length of the branch in shoot B on the 7th day? ( 1 mark) (ii) What would be the expected length of the branch developing from shoot A on the 11th day? ( 1 mark) (c) Account for the results obtained in the experiment ( 6 marks) (d) Why was shoot C included in the experiment? ( 1 mark) (e) What is the importance of gibberallic acid in agriculture? ( 1 mark) (f) State two physiological processes that are brought about by the application of gibberellic acid on plants. ( 2 marks) 12. (a) State tow environmental conditions that can cause seed dormancy (b) Name the part of a bean seed that elongates to bring about epigeal germination ( 1 mark) 13. (a) “True growth is not simply an increase in size” State four different ways in which true may be defined. (b) State two external factors, which influence growth in plants and describe one effect of each. (c) Fill in the spaces in the following table, which refers to hormones involved in growth processes. Name hormone Site of hormone production Effect Thyroid gland Maturation of Graafin follicles Auxins Gibberellins 14. Seedling from 100g of maize seed was grown in the dark for 10 days. The seedlings were then analyzed and compared with 100g of ingeminated maize. The following results were obtained. Dry mass of ingeminated seeds Dry mass of seedling after 10 days Cellulose Starch Other organic Material Ash 2g 63g 13g 2g 5g 9g 27g 4g Total dry mass 80g 45g (a) Why is dry mass used for comparison? (b) How would one ensure that the drying process had been completed (c) Account for the decrease in the total dry mass of the seedlings (d) Why did the seedling contain more cellulose than the underminated seeds? (e) What is the most likely source of the carbon used to form this new cellulose?

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